Despite the fact that the clinical manifestations of the neurological pathology are present in a huge variety, they are all caused by disequilibrium between some basic physiological and physiopathological processes. Neurotrophicity, neuroprotection neuroplasticity and more recently added neuroregeneration are concepts implicated in the maintaining of functions of the nervous system. They function together in order to counteract excitotoxicity, free radicals, metabolic dysfunctions, inflammation, apoptosis-like processes, proteins’ misfolding or the genetic factors. The clinical studies which have implicated neuroprotective agents have failed in their attempt to demonstrate their efficiency on statistical basis. The article below tries to summarize and to argue the present problems encountered by the present neuroprotective strategies.