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The taxonomy of specific deficiences of development

Autor: Constantin Lupu Adriana Cojocaru Doru Jurchescu
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The authors enclose the classification of multiple clinical forms of DCM and LCM, the aspects of etiopathogenesis and the possibilities of a diagnosis of fine-tuning in which neuropsychiatric, psychopedagogic, psychologists, defectologists, recovery and rehabilitation specialists from the diagnostic, treatment, correction and normalization team. Keywords: pre-school and school children, minor cerebral dysfunction (DCM), minor brain injury (LCM), classification, definition, identification, diagnostic, references.

Motto: A beautiful childhood lasts for a lifetime – C.Lupu

A remembrance of the classification of multiple forms of minor cerebral dysfunction (DCM) begins with the enumeration of the genetic aspects of these specific developmental delays. It is known that in DCM children’s families, identical situations are in 60% of paternal ascendants or approximately 33% -35% of maternal ascendants [12]. In minor brain injury diagnoses (LCM), we focus on the child’s anamnestic anomalies such as pre-and postnatal anoxic or hypoxic states, severe hyperpyretic conditions, craniocerebral trauma, and other epigenetic conditions [7]. These DCM and LCM frames refer to the broad range of age-appropriate intelligence, which justifies actions to rehabilitate developmental deficiencies in various childhood disorders [41].

Parallel to taxonomic inventory, we will explore aspects of developmental history and brain dysfunction.

Our neuro-psycho-medical professions require us to know more and more comprehensive information in the history of the topics being approached and about the periods and stages of human life. Our existing species, for thousands of years, has benefited from upward development stimulating conditions, covering different and multiple geoclimatic periods to which it has adapted itself through intelligence, migration and communication.

The communication through sounds, gestures and archaic codes, then through meaningful words-that is, by words, began from the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic, and in the Neolithic, there were graphic signs stating the days, the hunting trophies or the harvests, started by lines scraped on stones, on tree bark or clay-cured sheets. This was the beginning of arithmetic. Over time, families, tribes, populations, and peoples were formed who communicated through their own verbal and specific language to the group they belonged to [27]. From the beginning, there were children and adults who were able to communicate verbally and with different symbols, and others could not get the signals of communication [1].

There are currently 176 official languages   in the UN and UNESCO records, of which about 58 have their own writing and grammar. Around every language there are variants and dialects, some of them old, others developed more recently as combinations or languages  [16].

Children often experience situations where develop their speech and language through bilingualism or trilingualism. In some linguistic research it is recommended that multilingual learning begin with the acquisition of a mother tongue with which the child and adult can think of their whole life [2]. With time, the use of languages  has expanded.

From the middle of the century. XX, studies and use of artificial electronic language have been introduced. The doctors and logoped specialists of the NPI Timisoara Clinic participated in the design of the human voice synthesizer at the Faculty of Electrotechnics of the Polytechnic Institute of Timisoara in the years 19721974. Research was conducted by Prof. M.D. PhD. Anton Policsek and the Department of Electronic Research, with collaborators M.D. PhD. C. Lupu and Log. N. Iordache [40]. A synthesizer, who pronounced correctly letters, diffongs, words and expressions in Romanian and English, was obtained.

This appliance was successful in bringing the kindergarten children into a doll with which they played repeating the words we introduced. At present, toy robots produced in many countries manage to talk with children with speech difficulties and invite them to talk to aphasic adults, often repeating the correct pronunciation.

In the current period, the most used in the world for written communication are the letters of Latin writing and musical notes. These symbols communicate the easiest and reproduce sounds, words and melodies. These symbols are written from left to right, but there are also writings from right to left or vertically.

We further inventory the existence and continuity of sign language communication for children and adults with deafness, having a double deficiency with a diagnosis of deaf-mute. Signal communication has been used for over two millennia: the first use of signs for deaf people existed in the ancient hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt.

The founder of sign language by letters and numbers is considered the French Charles de l’Epee who made the alphabet of this language in the XVII century. Normal gestures of your hands, fingers and mimics are used. The communication of deaf-mute peoples has evolved towards labiolecture combined with body gesture and hand gestures. According to EU legislation, national televisions are obliged to ensure the transmission of news in mimic-gestural language. [46].

In the 19th century, world-wide development, two more current international languages  have been invented and still are existing today. In 1825 Louis Braille launched the alphabet for blind people based on a matrix of six relief points read by tactile sense: toes and toes, nose teeth, language functions, etc. [16]. With these symbols, there are 63 possible combinations in the reading system, math, logic, music, etc. with extension to segments for different languages. There is also a Romanian Braille segment adapted to the Romanian language.

An international language was launched in 1887 by Ludovic Lazar Zamenhof (1859-1907) Polish ophthalmologist and philologist. He created the universal language ESPERANTO taking Latin words, roots from the German, Slavic, Hebrew languages, etc. Zamenhof’s invention has simple grammar, so it is much used in the US, Europe, China and other Asian countries with the desire to communicate between the peoples of the world. Esperanto is written in Latin letters [46].

All users of these languages  have developmental deficiencies in the acquisition of communications, and have obstacles in synchronizing existing senses with specific sensory pathology.

Drawings and colorings of preschool children are very different from child to child. The progress in execution is found in the game of random color use, when moving to simple colored forms: circle, triangle, and so on. The aim is to find children and pupils with ophthalmic problems, especially the Daltonists.

We continue with remembering some important dates of entering the general use of the terms of developmental dysfunctions. After 10 years of activity (1965-1975), the staff of the NPI Center in Timisoara decided to initiate a professional meeting in order to form a tradition after the colleagues in Iasi announced the first meeting in 1956. Thus was organized in 1976 the 2nd Infant Neuropsychiatry Meeting in Romania with the themes:

  1. Principles of Assistance in Infantile Neuropsychiatry with papers presented by MD. Eliza Ionescu and MD. Margareta Stefan;
  2. Infant-juvenile neurosis analysis.

It is important that 210 physicians, psychologists, speech therapists, sociologists and pedagogues from npi units: cabinets, hospital departments, clinics from the five medical university centers in the country, from the big NPI hospitals, children’s leeches and schools helpful. The organization of that meeting has proven by the interest of many specialists that such exchanges of experience and information are needed, and that period is deprived of any source from other countries. A new title of the NPI specialty was used, inspired by French medicine, called infant-juvenile neuropsychiatry. There were shy discussions about children’s communication disorders, with papers dedicated to “instrumental deficiencies” – speech and writing disorders (discurses) using the terms introduced by Florica Bagdasar and psycho-pedagogue Florica Ionescu in 1968 [3] (fig. 1).

Several themes were followed, and at the VIII Meeting of 26-28 September 1985 in Timisoara the themes were “Clinical, genetic, psychological and psychopathological aspects of LCM and DCM syndromes, learning disabilities and disabilities, psychopathology of body shape, developmental dysfunctions and dysfunctions, including hyperkinetic syndrome.” At this meeting the LCM and DCM diagnostics were introduced in our country (fig. 2).

The developmental disorders of childhood, discussed in this NPCA National Conference, were presented by Constantin Lupu in the publication: “Minor Brain Diseases and Dysfunctions”, Edit. West University of Timisoara, since 1988 (fig. 3).

At the SNPCAR Congress in September 2018 are presented at the proposal of the members of our society, the subjects of the developmental disorders through the present report, which besides the descriptions of the classical disorders, presents the theoretical and clinical novelties in these domains.

Clinical examination for the detection of neuroscience microsimptoms, biochemical investigations, EEG, computerized, tomographic, psychological and logopathic diagnostics and professional experience can be very accurate with children with delays in development [4]. We appreciate that the first placement in the development-specific delay diagnosis is certified by the large differences between the verbal / non-verbal tests and those that we notice from the family and teacher observations [37].

So, for the diagnosis of developmental delays, there are serious clinical and paraclinical claims. In fact, setting the correct diagnosis of specific delays in time, we bring our contribution to the mental health of children, so to future adults [29].

CANP specialists will make a differential diagnosis of these findings with different forms of autism, with extrapyramidal frustrating syndromes, genetic cerebellar syndromes, essential tremors, ophthalmic and hearing disorders, and for many forms of speech disorders we are focusing on differential diagnosis with breathing disorders, with cardio-respiratory diseases, with sensory deficiencies or to avoid false frames,  with various forms of stuttering [1].

It is necessary to recall that in the FrancoGerman European terminology before DSM III, developmental delays were included in the chapter of ‘instrumental’ disorders. The term concerned adaptive and communication tools of the developing child: body communication, spatio-temporal orientation, motor skills of the body and mimics. When DSM III and DSM IV imposed US semantics, all physicians, psychologists, pedagogues, and recovery practitioners took over the definitions beyond the Atlantic Ocean [9].

Children with these developmental disorders will be the future illiterate and unindemanate, representing about 40% of students found in baccalaureate in the Latin and Cyrillic writing system, but much more in Asian writings through ideograms.

It is important and necessary for every child to be aware of with a medical file containing HCA data, pregnancy, birth and postnatal development. In this file are recorded somatic and psychological aspects and diagnoses, to be entered in the health card, and the medical records to be kept by the family.

We know that developmental rhythms are genetically predetermined, so we can predict the growth and development of the child. We will bring together the auxological and anthropological information to the psychodevelopmental for a complete vision of the formation of multiple intelligences [20].

Auxology builds on us in the study of human physical growth in all its aspects [4]. In the context, the development ensemble will take over the socio-familial and economic data that completes the dynamics of becoming [7].

Difficulties and delays in learning and knowing body shape, neuropsychological disarmonies in dysprax, adaptive functions necessary for life, are signaled by the symptoms of communication disorders:

– verbal speech: alalia, dislalia, dislogia;

– sign language through drawing: dispintura;

– of the written language: agraphy, disgraphy, disortography;

– disturbances of self-knowledge and communication through signs, arithmetic symbols, including the deficiency in the use of digits and accalculation-discalculatory operations;

– musical dysfunctions consisting of unrecognition and inability to play songs, called amusical and dismusical dysfunctions (fig. 4, 5).

The problems of disgraphy-disortography are also encountered by many adults: intellectuals, functionaries, doctors, teachers, etc. The peoples with this problems know these deficiencies. Often they can not even read what recently writing. In these situations, it is important to know the possibility of avoiding childhood through calligraphy exercises and especially by detecting the disgraphy, but also the possibility of correcting at different ages the deficiencies of communication through writing. In more and more countries the obligations to write correspondences, official documents and medical data through computerized systems were introduced.

We also recall the difficulties in recognizing the human faces in the proximal environment, namely prosopagnosis (aprosopagnosis or disprosopagnosis).

Spatial and temporal memory is located in posterosuperior temporal gyrus [1]. This important function is essential to the little child with localization in the nonverbal hemisphere and its connections.

The spatial function is associated with the prosopagnosis function and the emotional manifestations of oneself or others; but also with other nonverbal functions. We note that the phylogenetic development of temporo-spatial functions – especially spatial functions – are phylogenetic prior to the verbal functions of the dominant hemisphere. Learning and memorizing time is done ontogenetically and phylogenetically, deriving from the heredity of biorhythms of species prior to the human species.

There are also frequent specific disturbances of spatial, temporospace adaptation, non-adjustment to hourly rhythms called discrony, followed by reversal of sleep-wake rhythms.

Other important chapters of specific developments, as well as of dysfunctions, relate to the skills, gestures, mimics and walking disorders, also included in the group of somato-psychiatric disabilities [17]. Associated with these disabilities, we can observe uninvitedness – concomitant disabilities that refer to the manipulation of objects during the game, disabilities that can be corrected by collaborating and imitating other children. It is always recommended in these situations to check the ophthalmological and audiological way to avoid false framing.

We have found that the notification of any unsafe and dysfunctional can be reported by parents, but mainly depends on psychologists, psychopedagogues and specialists trained, knowledgeable and dedicated to these fine pediatric disarmons.

The whole child’s motoric and affective development depends on the presence of adults dedicated to positive communication, the most important being the female presence, especially the mother, accompanied by other human presentations: father, relatives, nurse who can stimulate the child through favorable gestational and emotional relationships. In positive parenting conditions [12], the infant and the child are evolving towards recognizing their own existence with the awareness of their own self [9]. This is the road to personogenesis, so to the identity, emotional and emotional quality of the future adolescent and adult. We know that every day the child aspires information and acquires knowledge and skills from others.

Different forms of institutionalization or isolation in which the young child is immobilized and deprived of models of inter-human communication (tactile, motoric, mimic, verbal) lead to insurrection, stereotypes, stagnation and cognitive-affective regression [15].

Thus, the specific delay of psychomotor development of hospitalism, with lifelong sequelae, is established. Here are some emotional-emotional dysfunctions.

Lexitimia is a genetic and human gnostic function, which refers to the psychic ability to understand, read, assimilate and express (exteriorize) the existing emotional and emotional states in children, adolescents and adults in relationships with their own lives, as well as those in jue, so with other living beings [31].

The lexitimia term comes from Greek (lexis, lexis = reading and timeyos = emotivity). Thus lexitimia is one of the functions necessary for the child to undergo a normal development.

Absence of the ability to feel, to take and to”read” your own emotional or emotional state is ALEXITIMIA. This developmental dysfunction is encountered under varying degrees of severity, the simple and corrective educational forms being embedded in DISLEXITIMITY, and the severe forms evolving towards emotional “illiteracy” [20].

Of the lexitimate feelings, the empathic functions that constantly accompany human life also develop.

Children with lexithic position and lexitimate thinking and positive affectivity will be trained for empathic friendship. They will generally come close to close – same-age friends and both sexes – and will benefit from their ties and attachment to each other [35].

In the developmental disturbances of the emotional and emotional functions of the lexitimity we find the absence of the ability to feel, to receive and to understand the emotional and emotional states of the close being: sad smiling or sad or noncommunicative people, etc. These disorders are defined by the terms Dyslexitimia or Alexitimia, which we can observe and observe in adult adults around children: in mother, relatives or nurse, as well as in children or adolescents who do not notice, intercept and participate in affective manifestations in the proximate environment [35].

So, Dyslexitimia and Alexitimia refer to the absence of emotional bi-directional and reciprocal competence: child == child, mother == child, family members == child [42].

In our presentation we argue that Dysleximia and Alexitimia are disorders of DCM and LCM that refer to the decrease or absence of multidirectional emotional competence.

From the developmental functions of intellect (IQ) and correct emotions (EQ), the competences of social intelligence (SI), artistic intelligence (AI) and cultural and spiritual intelligence will also develop.

These multiple intelligent sums contribute to the development of our identity [42].

From a neuropsychological point of view these definitions also include the functions of communication between the beings of the same species and sometimes between different species, which transmit their signals and timed states through the electromagnetic bones of the cerebral neurons.

CONCLUSIONS: Rigors of medical-neuropsychological reasoning have directed us to define as thoroughly and punctually as possible the description of LCM and DCM symptoms for the accuracy of our diagnostics, but we also provide information in the history of these topics.

Specific disorders of somatic and mental development have been identified and studied in the recent period of modern science. The authors make an enumeration of these deficiencies, offering physicians, psychologists, sociologists and pedagogues, the opportunity to identify developmental disorders that are specific to children or adolescents. It is necessary to individualize each situation. Having diagnosed these developmental disorders, we can implement specific stimulation-recovery measures that can correct developmental disabilities.

Small dictionary of terms taken from the classical languages   with the respective meanings in our text. From Greek:

– A (a) = negation, nonexistent, without: aphasia, alexia, etc .;

– Afazie = aphaasia: amulet, loss of speech;

– Bad, bad, wrong, defective, special;

– graphs = graphos, graphicos: writing, painting;

– Logo, luminous, logos = word, speech;

– Mesolithic = mesos: from the middle;

– Neolithic = neo = new: the period in the history of the primitive commune;

– Pictus = picto = painting / pictographie = primitive system of painting with expression of ideas by figurative or symbolic drawings;

– painting = pintos;

– taxonomy = taxis = arrangement, nomos = law; taxonomy is the science of classification laws according to multiple criteria;

– Tonus = contraction, resting tension (dystonia);

From Latin:

– Agramat = agrammatos = no culture;

– Calculus = counting, counting with the four arithmetic operations; acalculia, discalculia;

– Word = conventum and word;

– Development (development) = transition from previous state to new;

– Speech = verb, verbus = basic vocabulary unit


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