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DIFFERENCES IN INTROVERTED AND EXTROVERTED TEENS’ SELF ASSESSMENT

Autor: Amalia-Luisa Mitrulescu-Păişeanu
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Self assessment represents a complex concept which consists of much more than the way in which adolescents appreciate themselves, by contributing to their integration and acclimation to the social, professional and family environments. Self-assessment is one of the decisive factors which contribute to an efficient integration.

Objectives: Identification of self attitude and self esteem in the case of both adolescents with an introverted personality as well as adolescents with an extroverted personality. Identification of relation between types of personalities (introverted and extroverted) and certain personality traits: energy, sociability, perseverance, social intelligence, dominance, conscientiousness, optimism and emotional stability. Identification of the way in which adolescents self asses themselves based on their type of personality: introverted or extroverted.

Method: Participants. A group of 60 adolescents, between 16 and 18 years old, students at the Francesco Saverio Nitti Economical College in Timisoara.

Instruments: The current study has been performed by applying four questionnaires: The Eysenck personality questionnaire, the Self Assessment Scale, The Rosenberg Scale and the Self Evaluation Inventory.

Results: There is a correlation between self assessment and self esteem, introverted adolescents having a different self attitude than the extroverted ones and there are differences between the way they self asses themselves.

Conclusions: Because the adolescence is heavily influenced by emotions, self awareness is exhibited intensely and the self image is contoured. During this period, it is necessary for adolescents to be encouraged and backed up in order to form a correct and realistic evaluation of their own performance.

INTRODUCTION

Among all the age stages which the human being traverses during life, adolescence is considered the age during which (besides the major psychical transformations which it implies) the desire and the indispensable need for self assessment or for getting to know one’s self manifests at the highest intensity .

The adolescent explores his self most notably through self reflection, solitary introspection and also through the various activities that he practices, the most important of which being competitive activities for which he manifests a special interest. Through these endeavors, he gets to or tries to become self aware of his qualities and defects, abilities and limits, aptitudes, their level of evolution, character attitudes, certainties etc. In other words, he tends to know as well as possible his own personality.

The assessment of one’s self is influenced by many factors: the level of intelligence development, the interest in self assessment, previous knowledge of psychology, self analysis capacity etc.

Also, the adolescent’s type of personality is added to these factors. The influence of this factor in the process of self assessment constitutes the topic of this article.

In order to clarify this aspect, I chose two types of personality that are very different from each other, actually the opposite of each other: introvert and extrovert. I assumed that this choice will clearly yield the influence of the type of personality on self assessment.

In my opinion, self assessment represents a complex concept which signifies much more than the way in which adolescents see themselves. It is an intricate process which contributes to their integration and accommodation to the social, professional and family environments. Self assessment represents one of the decisive factors in the process of a successful integration.

The purpose of this study is to obtain an analysis of self esteem, of the way in which adolescents self asses themselves and of their personality traits, in order to identify the influence of the type of personality (introvert and extrovert) on them.

Starting from the importance and the impact of self esteem and psychological self assessment of adolescents, through this study I aimed for the following objectives:

  • Identify the attitude towards one’s self, the self esteem and self assessment in the case of introvert and extrovert adolescents.
  • The relations between the type of personality (introvert and extrovert) and certain personality traits: energy, sociability, perseverance, social intelligence, dominance, conscientiousness, optimism and emotional stability.
  • Identify the way in which adolescents self asses themselves, based on their personality type (introvert or extrovert).
  • Highlight the level of self awareness, based on the degree of concordance between the self image obtained through self assessment and the type of personality (introvert or extrovert)

 

 

ASSUMPTIONS

In order to reach the established objectives, I have made the following assumptions:

  1. In the case of adolescents, there is a correlation between self assessment (the way in which they see themselves) and self esteem.
  2. There are differences between introvert and extrovert adolescents concerning their attitude towards themselves.
  3. There are differences between introvert and extrovert adolescents concerning self assessment.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Capturing the various aspects of self awareness in a proper way mandated the use of questionnaire-based psychological testing.

This study has been performed by presenting four questionnaires to 289 students at the Francesco Saverio Nitti Economical College in Timisoara.

After the evaluation  of the questionnaires, a group of 60 subjects has been selected. This group represents students from grades 10 to 12, with ages between 16 and 18 years, thus corresponding to the adolescence period.

 

Criteria for excluding from the study:

  • sub-average intelligence level;
  • ambivalent personality;
  • age;

 

Table 1: The distribution of adolescents based on age, correlated  with the gender and the type of personality 

The first psychodiagnostic instrument that I used was the Eysenck personality questionnaire, in order to determine the type of introversion and extroversion. The questionnaire contains a volume of 57 questions, each having two possible choices for the answer.

The Eysenck personality questionnaire determines two base factors: the extroversion (introversion) and the neuroticism The first factor is bipolar and it represents the individual-psychological characteristic of the person, the extremes of which correspond to the orientation towards the external world (extroversion) or the subjective, interior world (introversion). The second factor – neuroticism – describes the state which characterizes the person from the perspective of emotional stability, anxiety etc.

The next utilized psychodiagnostic instrument was the Self Assessment Scale, the one elaborated by M. Lavoegie and adapted to our population (Zapartan, 1990 p. 22). This scale was used in order to evaluate the following personality traits: energy (activism), sociability, perseverance, social intelligence, ascendency (dominance), conscientiousness (self accountability), optimism and emotional stability.

In order to determine the attitude towards self, I utilized two questionnaires: the Rosenberg Scale and the Self Evaluation Inventory , which originates  from the theory of C. Roges and W. Daymond (Bonchis, E., 1997, p. 84).

The Rosenberg Scale consists of 10 items, out of which five estimate the positive appreciation towards one’s self and the other five the negative attitude towards one’s self. I processed the results in a segregated way, by splitting the questions in two groups: 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, the first group expressing the positive attitude towards one’s self and the second one negative assessment.

The Self Evaluation Inventory  consists of 58 questions, each having two possible choices for the answer. Among these questions, 29 refer to a positive attitude towards one’s self and the other 29 refer to a negative attitude towards one’s self. The score which determines that one type of personality becomes predominant is 40.

 

 

THE ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS

Following the application of the investigative instruments, I composed a set of data and information which, through analysis and interpretation, helped me validate the assumptions which I have formulated and to draw the conclusions of this research.

In the following paragraphs, I will analyze the data from a quantitative point of view, by focusing on outlining the quantitative-numeric relations between the studied variables and from a quality point of view, by outlining the connections between the variables and comparisons between the obtained data and information from the pre-existing literature.

The statistical analysis of the data has been performed using the SPSS software package.

 

ASSUMPTION 1: In the case of adolescents, there is a correlation between self assessment and self esteem.

 

Table 2: Correlation between self assessment and self esteem

1. Correlation between the energy and self esteem variables:

  • p = .000 – we consider that there exists a relation between the studied variables, energy and self esteem.
  • r = 0.602 – between the two studied variables there is a directly proportional relation, thus if adolescents display the trait of a highly energetic personality, then there is a tendency for the self esteem to have a similar level.
  • r2 = 0.362 – the absolute size of the coefficient –
  • between the two variables, energy and self esteem, it is considered that there is a medium strength relation. We can observe that 36% of the variation found between adolescents can also be found in reality, thus the determined relation is present in the same way (directly proportional) among 36% of the adolescents.

 

2. Correlation between the sociability and self esteem variables:

  • p = .000 – we consider that there exists a relation between the studied variables, sociability and self esteem.
  • r = 0.727 – between the two studied variables there is a directly proportional relation, thus if adolescents display the trait of a highly sociable personality, then there is a tendency for the self esteem to have a similar level.
  • r2 = 0.528 – the absolute size of the coefficient – between the two variables, sociability and self esteem, it is considered that there is a strong relation. We can observe that 53% of the variation found between adolescents can also be found in reality, thus the determined relation is present in the same way (directly proportional) among 53% of the adolescents.

 

3. Correlation between the perseverance and self esteem variables:

  • p = .000 – we consider that there exists a relation between the studied variables, perseverance and self esteem.
  • r = -0.53 – between the two studied variables there is an inverse proportional relation, thus if adolescents display the trait of a highly perseverant personality, then there is a tendency for the self esteem to have a low level.
  • r2 = 0.28 – the absolute size of the coefficient – between the two variables, sociability and self esteem, it is considered that there is a weak relation. We can observe that 28% of the variation found between adolescents can also be found in reality, thus the determined relation is present in the same way (inverse proportional) among 28% of the adolescents.

 

4. Correlation between the social intelligence and self esteem variables:

  • p = .000 – we consider that there exists a relation between the studied variables, social intelligence and self esteem.
  • r = 0.726 – between the two studied variables there is a directly proportional relation, thus if adolescents display the trait of a highly social intelligent personality, then there is a tendency for the self esteem to have a similar level.
  • r2 = 0.527 – the absolute size of the coefficient –
  • between the two variables, social intelligence and self esteem, it is considered that there is a strong relation. We can observe that 53% of the variation found between adolescents can also be found in reality, thus the determined relation is present in the same way (directly proportional) among 53% of the adolescents.

 

5. Correlation between the dominance and self esteem variables:

  • p = .000 – we consider that there exists a relation between the studied variables, dominance and self esteem.
  • r = 0.753 – between the two studied variables there is a directly proportional relation, thus if adolescents display the trait of a highly dominant personality, then there is a tendency for the self esteem to have a similar level.
  • r2 = 0.567 – the absolute size of the coefficient – between the two variables, dominance and self esteem, it is considered that there is a strong relation. We can observe that 57% of the variation found between adolescents can also be found in reality, thus the determined relation is present in the same way (directly proportional) among 57% of the adolescents.

 

6. Correlation between the conscientiousness and self esteem variables:

  • p = .000 – we consider that there exists a relation between the studied variables, conscientiousness and self esteem.
  • r = -0.412 – between the two studied variables there is an inverse proportional relation, thus if adolescents display the trait of a highly conscientious personality, then there is a tendency for the self esteem to have a low level.
  • r2 = 0.169 – the absolute size of the coefficient –
  • between the two variables, conscientiousness and self esteem, it is considered that there is a weak relation. We can observe that 17% of the variation found between adolescents can also be found in reality, thus the determined relation is present in the same way (inverse proportional) among 17% of the adolescents.

 

7. Correlation between the optimism and self esteem variables:

  • p = .000 – we consider that there exists a relation between the studied variables, optimism and self esteem.
  • r = 0.522 – between the two studied variables there is a directly proportional relation, thus if adolescents display the trait of a highly optimist personality, then there is a tendency for the self esteem to have a similar level.
  • r2 = 0.272 – the absolute size of the coefficient – between the two variables, optimism and self esteem, it is considered that there is a weak relation. We can observe that 27% of the variation found between adolescents can also be found in reality, thus the determined relation is present in the same way (directly proportional) among 27% of the adolescents.

 

8. Correlation between the emotional stability and self esteem variables:

  • p = .000 – we consider that there exists a relation between the studied variables, emotional stability and self esteem.
  • r = 0.501 – between the two studied variables there is a directly proportional relation, thus if adolescents display the trait of a highly emotionally stable personality, then there is a tendency for the self esteem to have a similar level.
  • r2 = 0.251 – the absolute size of the coefficient –
  • between the two variables, emotional stability and self esteem, it is considered that there is a weak relation. We can observe that 25% of the variation found between adolescents can also be found in reality, thus the determined relation is present in the same way (directly proportional) among 25% of the adolescents.

 

The identity of the adolescent is subject to a series of continuous transforms of determination and self exploration, which influence his behavior and can create confusions regarding self assessment, self esteem and social relations.

One of the preoccupations of the adolescent is getting to know one’s self. Self awareness, self assessment and self esteem, have a major impact due to the influences exerted on the behavior and the life of adolescents, thus influencing success as well as failure.

Adolescents with low self esteem emphasize their negative traits and are unable to highlight their qualities and to reach their full potential.

Self assessment lies at the basis of the entire personality of adolescents, thus their activities, their behavior, their sentiments and their self esteem are not in concordance with their personal image (the way in which they view themselves). Thus, adolescents behave as they view themselves.

Self assessment, the way in which adolescents view themselves, represents an integrator and organizer of physical life, having a major impact on their behavior, on the choices they make, on the social integration and adaptation, on formation of competence and certainty sentiments, thus the level of self assessment affects self esteem.

A positive self assessment influences self esteem and thus enables organizational, planification and relational capabilities.

The self assessment manifested by adolescents is linked to self esteem. The process through which an adolescent is able to interact, to integrate and to adapt in the social environment, adjusting his behavior according to the requirements of the environment, is influenced by the way in which he  self assesses himself  as well as by the self esteem. Thus, in the case of high levels of self esteem, adolescents are more sociable, attend more social events and have a higher general psychological adaptation.

Concerning the link between self esteem and self assessment, the studies performed by Erol and Orth (2011) highlights the fact that emotionally stable, sociable, energetic and social intelligent people of all ages have high self esteem compared to emotionally unstable, secluded and antisocial people. According to the studies performed by the previously cited authors, self esteem develops during adolescence and continues to evolve in the course of the young adult life.

According to Davis (apud Fioravanti G., De`ttore D., Casale S., 2012), adolescents with poor social skills, secluded and with low self esteem are predisposed to develop maladaptive cognitions and negative behaviors.

 

 

ASSUMPTION 2: There are differences between introvert and extrovert adolescents regarding self attitude.

In order to test this assumption, I first calculated the positive attitude towards self of introvert and extrovert adolescents and, afterwards, the negative attitude towards self of these adolescents.

 

Table 3: Statistical values of the groups for the self assessment questionnaire

Table 4: t test for positive and negative attitude towards self

By analyzing the data produced by SPSS, summarized in the table 3, we can observe that the mean obtained on the sample of introvert adolescents for the positive attitude towards self is 24.3, while the mean obtained by extrovert adolescents for the same parameter is 39.67.

By performing a statistical analysis on the data, we can observe that the Levene dispersion equality test is statistically insignificant, which highlights a homogeneous dispersion of the two groups. In this case, we will trust the first variant of t, which is t (58) = -5,808, p < 0.05.

The mean of the values from the tests for positive self attitude of extrovert adolescents is significantly higher (M = 39.67, p < 0,05) than the one for introvert adolescents (M = 24.3).

By analyzing the data from the table 4, we can observe that there are differences in the positive attitude towards self between introvert and extrovert adolescents.

Regarding the negative attitude towards self of introvert and extrovert adolescents, we can observe in the table 3 that the mean obtained on the sample of introvert adolescents is 33.7, while the mean obtained on the sample of extrovert adolescents for the same parameter is 18.33.

By performing a statistical analysis on the data, we can observe that the Levene dispersion equality test is statistically insignificant, which highlights a homogeneous dispersion of the two groups. In this case, we will trust the first variant of t, which is t (58) = 5,808, p < 0.05.

The mean of the values from the tests for negative self attitude of introvert adolescents is significantly higher (M = 33.7, p < 0,05) than the one for extrovert adolescents (M = 18.33).

By analyzing the data from the table 4, we can observe that there are differences in the negative attitude towards self between introvert and extrovert adolescents.

Regarding the attitude, by applying the Rosenberg scale and the self evaluation inventory, I concluded that introverts have a dominant negative attitude towards self, as opposed to extroverts, who have a dominant positive attitude towards self.

In the case of introvert adolescents, the negative attitude towards self is predominant because introverts are aware of their unsatisfactory abilities and insufficient knowledge. Introverts have a bad opinion about themselves, presenting a strong disagreement between their own personality and the one they desire to have.

Extroverts have a good attitude towards themselves and the way in which their personality is shaped.

Self perception, most frequently manifested by introverts, makes them aware of the positive as well as the negative aspects of their own self. Combined with this, by becoming aware of their social ineptitude, introverts tend to have a mostly negative attitude towards their own self, as opposed to extroverts who often have a positive attitude towards themselves.

In the case of introverts, when their negative self attitude is intense and prolonged during a long period of time, it can produce dramatic self conflicts.

 

 

GENERAL ASSUMPTION 3: There are differences in self assessment between introvert and extrovert adolescents.

 

Table 5: Statistical values of groups at self assessment scale

Specific assumption 1: There are differences between introvert and extrovert adolescents regarding energy as a dimension of self assessment.

By analyzing the data produced by SPSS, summarized in the table 5, we can observe that the mean obtained on the sample of introvert adolescents for energy is 8.17, which corresponds to a medium level of energy, while the mean obtained by extrovert adolescents for the same parameter is 11, which reflects a high energy level.

By performing a statistical analysis on the data, we can observe that the Levene dispersion equality test is statistically insignificant, which highlights a homogeneous dispersion of the two groups. In this case, we will trust the first variant of t, which is t (58) = -4.923, p < 0.05.

 

Table 6: t test for the self assessment scale

The mean of the values from the tests for the energy of extrovert adolescents is significantly higher (M = 11, p < 0,05) than the one for introvert adolescents (M = 8.2).

By analyzing the data from the table 6, we can observe that there are differences regarding energy as a dimension of self assessment between introvert and extrovert adolescents.

 

Specific assumption 2: There are differences between introvert and extrovert adolescents regarding sociability as a dimension of self assessment.

Regarding sociability, we can observe that the mean obtained on the sample of introvert adolescents is 7, which corresponds to a low level, while the mean obtained by extrovert adolescents for this parameter is 12.4, which corresponds to a very high level.

By performing a statistical analysis on the data, we can observe that the Levene dispersion equality test is statistically insignificant, which highlights a homogeneous dispersion of the two groups. In this case, we will trust the first variant of t, which is t (58) = -8.076, p < 0.05.

The mean of the values from the tests for the sociability of extrovert adolescents is significantly higher (M = 12.4, p < 0,05) than the one for introvert adolescents (M = 7).

By analyzing the data from the table 6, we can observe that there are differences regarding sociability as a dimension of self assessment between introvert and extrovert adolescents.

 

Specific assumption 3: There are differences between introvert and extrovert adolescents regarding perseverance as a dimension of self assessment.

Regarding perseverance, we can observe that the mean obtained on the sample of introvert adolescents is 12.7, which corresponds to a high level, while the mean obtained by extrovert adolescents for this parameter is 8.6, which corresponds to a medium level.

By performing a statistical analysis on the data, we can observe that the Levene dispersion equality test is statistically insignificant, which highlights a homogeneous dispersion of the two groups. In this case, we will trust the first variant of t, which is t (58) = 10.467, p < 0.05.

The mean of the values from the tests for the perseverance of introvert adolescents is significantly higher (M = 12.7, p < 0,05) than the one for extrovert adolescents (M = 8.6).

By analyzing the data from the table 6, we can observe that there are differences regarding perseverance as a dimension of self assessment between introvert and extrovert adolescents.

 

Specific assumption 4: There are differences between introvert and extrovert adolescents regarding social intelligence as a dimension of self assessment.

Regarding social intelligence, we can observe that the mean obtained on the sample of introvert adolescents is 9.5, which corresponds to a medium level, while the mean obtained by extrovert adolescents for this parameter is 13.3, which corresponds to a very high level.

By performing a statistical analysis on the data, we can observe that the Levene dispersion equality test is statistically insignificant, which highlights a homogeneous dispersion of the two groups. In this case, we will trust the first variant of t, which is t (40.88) = -7.238, p < 0.05.

The mean of the values from the tests for the social intelligence of extrovert adolescents is significantly higher (M = 13.3, p < 0,05) than the one for introvert adolescents (M = 9.5,).

By analyzing the data from the table 6, we can observe that there are differences regarding social intelligence as a dimension of self assessment between introvert and extrovert adolescents.

 

Specific assumption 5: There are differences between introvert and extrovert adolescents regarding dominance as a dimension of self assessment.

Regarding dominance, we can observe that the mean obtained on the sample of introvert adolescents is 7.6, which corresponds to a medium level, while the mean obtained by extrovert adolescents for this parameter is 11.5, which corresponds to a high level.

By performing a statistical analysis on the data, we can observe that the Levene dispersion equality test is statistically insignificant, which highlights a homogeneous dispersion of the two groups. In this case, we will trust the first variant of t, which is t (40.88) = -5.514, p < 0.05.

The mean of the values from the tests for the dominance of extrovert adolescents is significantly higher (M = 11.5, p < 0,05) than the one for introvert adolescents (M = 7.6).

By analyzing the data from the table 6, we can observe that there are differences regarding dominance as a dimension of self assessment between introvert and extrovert adolescents.

 

Specific assumption 6: There are differences between introvert and extrovert adolescents regarding conscientiousness as a dimension of self assessment.

Regarding conscientiousness, we can observe that the mean obtained on the sample of introvert adolescents is 13.5, which corresponds to a very high level, while the mean obtained by extrovert adolescents for this parameter is 8, which corresponds to a medium level.

By performing a statistical analysis on the data, we can observe that the Levene dispersion equality test is statistically insignificant, which highlights a homogeneous dispersion of the two groups. In this case, we will trust the first variant of t, which is t (58) = 11.37, p < 0.05.

The mean of the values from the tests for the conscientiousness of introvert adolescents is significantly higher (M = 13.5, p < 0,05) than the one for extrovert adolescents (M = 8).

By analyzing the data from the table 6, we can observe that there are differences regarding conscientiousness as a dimension of self assessment between introvert and extrovert adolescents.

 

Specific assumption 7: There are differences between introvert and extrovert adolescents regarding optimism as a dimension of self assessment.

Regarding conscientiousness, we can observe that the mean obtained on the sample of introvert adolescents is 7.8, which corresponds to a medium level, while the mean obtained by extrovert adolescents for this parameter is 13.37, which corresponds to a very high level.

By performing a statistical analysis on the data, we can observe that the Levene dispersion equality test is statistically insignificant, which highlights a homogeneous dispersion of the two groups. In this case, we will trust the first variant of t, which is t (58) = -11.617, p < 0.05.

The mean of the values from the tests for the optimism of extrovert adolescents is significantly higher (M = 13.37p < 0,05) than the one for introvert adolescents (M = 7.8).

By analyzing the data from the table 6, we can observe that there are differences regarding optimism as a dimension of self assessment between introvert and extrovert adolescents.

 

Specific assumption 8: There are differences between introvert and extrovert adolescents regarding emotional stability as a dimension of self assessment.

Regarding emotional stability, we can observe that the mean obtained on the sample of introvert adolescents is 6.5, which corresponds to a low level, while the mean obtained by extrovert adolescents for this parameter is 9.77, which corresponds to a high level.

By performing a statistical analysis on the data, we can observe that the Levene dispersion equality test is statistically insignificant, which highlights a homogeneous dispersion of the two groups. In this case, we will trust the first variant of t, which is t (58) = -4.538, p < 0.05.

The mean of the values from the tests for the emotional stability of extrovert adolescents is significantly higher (M = 9.77, p < 0,05) than the one for introvert adolescents (M = 6.5).

By analyzing the data from the table 6, we can observe that there are differences regarding emotional stability as a dimension of self assessment between introvert and extrovert adolescents.

This hypothesis highlights the existence of a significant difference between introvert and extrovert adolescents regarding self assessment. Thus, introvert adolescents asses themselves as being conscientious and perseverant at high levels, energetic, optimistic, dominant and social intelligent at medium levels and with low levels of sociability and emotional stability. On the other hand, extroverts asses themselves on average as being sociable, optimistic, with a high level of social intelligence, energetic, dominant, with a high emotional stability and perseverant and conscientious at medium levels.

The differences regarding self assessment between introverts and extroverts could be explained through the theory of C. G. Jung, through the dominant orientation of the libido and of the psychical energy. Thus, introverts have this orientation towards their own selves and, as a consequence, consume more energy through auto reflection. Extroverts, by channeling their energy mostly towards the external world, are less preoccupied by self assessment and more preoccupied of expressing themselves during various activities.

 

 

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

In the present article, I have tried to highlight, with the purpose of endorsing my assumptions, the existence of a correlation between self assessment and self esteem in the case of adolescents, as well as the existence of differences in the levels of self esteem and self appreciation for introvert adolescents compared to extrovert adolescents.

Adolescence, the stage of transition between childhood and adulthood, is a period with a high emotional load, where self awareness manifests intensely and the self image is contoured. Thus, it is necessary that adolescents are sustained and encouraged to form an accurate and realistic evaluation of their performances.

The self assessment that adolescents manifest is tied to self esteem. The process through which an adolescent is capable of interacting, to integrate and adapt to the social environment, by adjusting his behavior based on the requirements of the environment is influenced by the way he  assesses himself 0 as well as by his self esteem. Thus, having high levels of self esteem, adolescents are more sociable, attend more social events and have better psychological adaptation.

Based on these ideas, I decided to contribute to the particularization of the personality traits of introvert adolescents compared to extrovert adolescents. Also, I decided to highlight and analyze the link which exists at the personality level between the self assessment and the self esteem of adolescents.

After applying the instruments of investigation and performing the data analysis, the assumptions made in this study have been confirmed. This fact helped me express a series of interpretations through which I have tried to highlight the presence of significant differences between introvert and extrovert adolescents regarding self assessment.

The first assumption endorses the existence of a correlation between energy, sociability, perseverance, social intelligence, dominance, conscientiousness, optimism and emotional stability as dimensions of the self assessment and the self esteem of adolescents. Thus, the level of the self esteem of adolescents is closely tied to the level of self assessment.

The second assumption has confirmed the fact that there are significant differences between introvert and extrovert adolescents regarding the attitude towards their own selves. Introvert adolescents have a preponderantly negative attitude towards themselves, which influences their way of reporting themselves to the social environment and their relations to others, compared to extrovert adolescents, who have a preponderantly positive attitude towards themselves, which enables them to have well developed social abilities.

The final assumption confirms the existence of a significant difference between introvert and extrovert adolescents regarding energy, sociability, perseverance, social intelligence, dominance, conscientiousness, optimism and emotional stability as dimensions of self assessment. Thus, introvert adolescents asses themselves as being conscientious and perseverant at high levels, energetic, optimistic, dominant and social intelligent at medium levels and with low levels of sociability and emotional stability. On the other hand, extroverts asses themselves on average as being sociable, optimistic, with a high level of social intelligence, energetic, dominant, with a high emotional stability and perseverant and conscientious at medium levels.

The assessments and perceptions which adolescents have regarding their own self derive from the evolution of self assessment, having a high impact on diminishing the problems and difficulties which adolescents must face in order to obtain a successful adaptation.

Introvert adolescents represent, in general, a social category with reduced possibilities to adapt and integrate, which affects their social relations and which could generate feelings of inferiority, helplessness, disappointment and anxiety. Extrovert adolescents benefit from a much better accommodation to the social environment, which helps them to integrate easier.

The difficulties which I faced in order to produce this article were related to finding the group of introvert adolescents.

The limitations of the study are related to the small number of selected subjects for analysis, thus, it could be further improved by surveying more adolescents. Also, the study could investigate other psycho-social and family factors, which can have an impact on the personality traits of adolescents: the assessed self image, the ideal self image, their environment of origin, their relation with their parents etc.

 

 

As future research topics we propose:

The relations between the way in which adolescents view themselves and the way in which they are seen by their colleagues, regarding the same types of personalities that I studied.

The relations between adolescents’ self assessment and their ideal self, in the case of introverted and extroverted personalities

Evaluating the level of self assessment, based on the degree of correlation between the self image produced by self evaluation, the self image attributed by others and the ideal self image of adolescents, in the case of introverted and extroverted personalities.

As advice, I consider that a program to raise self awareness should be implemented in schools, based on a program focused on improving adolescent self esteem, in order to help students assess themselves correctly and to obtain a higher level of acceptance, thus gaining self respect and self confidence, which are mandatory for them to integrate and adapt socially and professionally.

 

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