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Psychoanalysis – the Phoenix bird of humanist sciences

Autor: Constantin Lupu Adriana Cojocaru
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SUMMARY
At the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries, a lot of new concepts, trends, sciences, movements, sciences, technical inventions, etc emerged. Among the new sciences, PSYCHOANALYSIS was born of the desire to know the human psyche, penetrating into many of the hidden values of thinking, and of human behaviours. The beginnings and the psychoanalytical interpretations focused on capitalizing on the verbal sources and the sexuality, have been followed by conflicts and disavowals, which led to completing these concepts. Great personalities from PsA of adult and child are presented. The dictatorial regimes of the 20th century imposed the burial of psychoanalysis and the punishment of practitioners, condemning them and blocking their theoretical meetings. However, Psychoanalysis that was born and disavowed in Europe continued to be practised in a few Western centres and it has become the reference source in the medical psychology of the USA.
During the 50 years of communist regime in Romania, we had brave personalities who have practised it continuing a tradition. These are aspects that we will publish in a future presentation. The current article is conceived as a remembrance introduction dedicated to the material offered by Prof. V. Ciomos.
Keywords: short history of Psychoanalysis, founders, stages of analysis, the word and the speech in the foreground, libido and psycho-sexuality, psychoa- nalysis theory and therapeutic practice, knowledge and disavowal, renaissance from one’s own values
While preparing for the 20th RSCANP Congress, we intend to cast our minds back over aspects from the genesis of the scientific current of PSYCHOANALYSIS (PsA), one of the first sources of access to psychopathology and human psychotherapies. The enthusiasm generated by the emergence of Freudian psychoanalysis at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century brought to modern life scientific, historical, philological, medical, psychological and artistic movements in literature, music, visual arts, the art of photography, the arts of theatre and cinema.
We could imagine PSYCHOANALYSIS as a tree that emerged from the rich soil of millenary knowledge, the tree grew, it gave many branches – some of them were pro – other critical or anti-psychoanalysis, but all of them creative of new ideas and concepts. The genesis of psychoanalysis is related to several sources: mythological, historical, scientific, inspiration from biblical culture, from the legends, history and culture of ancient Greece [1] to other creations of human wisdom since antiquity up to the present.
Starting from information supplied by the biblical texts, we note that Psychoanalysis managed to find an explanation to certain archaic taboos and subjective conceptions, often containing punitive aspects of the divine forces [2]. Illustrated by examples, the theological descriptions of attraction and gender relations – that is, the libido between the first man and the first woman (considered in religion as the original or ancestral sin), are explained in PsA as instinctual pulsational manifestations present in human beings from birth to death. According to S. Freud, libido is the energy that converts sexual impulses into purposeful actions [8] while, after Jung, libido is the human “psychic energy” for attraction and sexual appetite [15]. Through the advances in science, in endocrinology, libido is explained by a cyclic alternation of oestrogen hormones – testosterone and the presence of pheromones, specific to the animal kingdom [5].
According to Freud, the existential pulsational energies are the conservative ones (death, anxiety and phobia) and the sexual pulses necessary for the conservation of species and psychological development. Other biblical examples that take us into the objective reality of human life are the fraternal relationships of jealousy, hatred and murder, instinctual impulses due to individual aggression or group aggression, such as revenge and wars or conjectures of domination and aggressivity – expansive needs such as wars between tribes, ethnicities, or religions, including the destruction of the Apocalypses [12].
In 1901, S. Freud published the “Psychopathology of Everyday Life” in which he took inspiration from existing casuistry and from his own self-analysis, establishing the concept of “sexual development”, describing his vision on the stages of child development and becoming [11]. These stages are:
 Stage 0-1 years of exploring the world with the help of lips, mouth and integuments: buccal (oral) stage;
 the stage of anal communication between 1-3 years of age, with reference to the sphincter incontinences as physiologic developmental stages;

 In the 3-6 year stage, the child uses the instinctual pulsions of Libido to discover the differences between the sexes – it is the infantile phallic stage (of Oedipus complexes or the Electra complex in girls) with the projection on the opposite sex parent. This stage is also important for the mental, sexual and cognitive development;
 between 7 – 11 (12) years of age there are the stages of pre-puberty, puberty and adolescence – with episodes of admiration, imaginary love and self – satisfaction. Simultaneously, the individuals go through processes of socialization, learning, cultural enlightenment while moral values may be acquired;
The stages of youth and the genital phase of adult life with the respective responsibilities;
During the PsA sessions, childhood memories, games, frustrations, psycho-traumas and lost love are ecphorised and revived – and the psychoanalyst interprets, helps discover and eventually find a solution.
In the Freudian concept on the structure of personality, three dimensions are addressed, namely the Id, ego and superego. The Id (Self ) is ubiquitous, representing soma and the subconscious, instinctual, biological forces dominated by pleasure needs.
 The EGO is manifested between 3-5 (7) years of age, and it places the child into reality and in the urge to get along well with other children and with adults [7].
From the age of 5 on, the superego is manifested through which the child conceives social behaviours dominated by restrictions and meanings, while referring to the censorship of the two previous structures. The Ego will control Id’s biological instincts and will determine the quality of social intercommunication and collaboration, complying with social censorship.
In enumerating the scientific sources of Freudian psychoanalysis, we will begin by recalling the rituals and practices used in ecphorising and confessing life’s events that existed since ancient times. S. Freud was inspired by the contributions of his friends W. Fless,
J. Breuer and of the scientists of his time [9]. At the end of the 19th century, the methods of study and treatment targeted the symptoms of the mental disorder called hysteria, a manifestation in fashion at that time, which was imitated and cultivated in the Western world. Freud began his research in 1885 when he visited the Salpetriere Clinic (Paris) where he became acquainted with the research of the academician neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), who had described the phases of the “great hysterical attack” and the possibilities of inducing or imitating epilepsy attacks, aphasia or other neurological conditions: hemiparesis, paralysis, etc. seen by hysterics. Freud considered Charcot as his mentor. Another great contribution to the subject is represented by Josef Breuer’s experience as neuropsychiatrist (1842-1925), who was the founder of the psychotherapy of “emotional discharge” with cathartic effect [14]. He relied on recalling and verbalizing certain memories and psychotraumas using also hypnosis as ecphorising method. He called this method “analysis”, a term taken over and used by his friend S. Freud. Their collaboration lasted for a few years(1880-1895). J. Breuer launched the talking cure – which would induce catharsis, and this represents the beginnings of verbal psychoanalysis. In 1895, the two specialists published “Studies on Hysteria” together [10] in which they supported the treatment of these psychosexual manifestations by means of hypnosis, too. Also in 1895, Freud and Breuer launched the term PSYCHOANALYSIS, these being the beginnings of a new science that was eventually used in many areas. After 1895, the relationship between the two altered.
Freud also turned to the classical Ernest Kretschmer (1888-1964) a German neuro – psychiatrist who described the “sensitive delirium of delusion” that bears his name, being the founder of the concept of BIOTYPOLOGY and of the finding that teenage girls and young women are prone to sexual hysteria because of sensitivities and emotional oscillations, the corporeal side of sexual attraction being of major importance, followed by the psychic side [17].
Then, at the end of the century, S. Freud approached the realm of dreams, establishing that they are produced in the brain, linked to ancestral mnesic deposits and to ones own older or more recent memories, without making use of mystical explanations. He formulated the definition of dreaming, which is a mental experience occurring during the sleep that can be recalled and reported after waking [15].
The technique of the psychoanalysis session, set up by Freud, consists in:
 starting the examination through dialogue,

 writing down the records obtained while the patient was on the couch,
 processing of data by the examiner,
 meetings can be repeated at the examinee’s or examiner’s request, following a state of emotional transference, especially in male- female relationships.
The concepts of psychoanalysis have produced enthusiasm and praise, being considered revolutionary [21] but critics, contradictions and denial were immediately released. For a century a lot has changed, many developments, additions, complements have emerged which excluded the primary role of sexuality or of hypnosis, reduced the permanent role of mental trauma, but included the analyses of family life, of the influences of society and culture, especially the importance of the various forms of affectivity and empathy. The evolution of psychoanalytic trends with reference to the lives of adults, children and adolescents, consists in the interpenetration of classical conceptions with different analyses due to new changes in life. It can be said that psychoanalysis has been updated, modernized, but has continued to be the basis of inspiration and relationships in all forms of psychotherapy.
The classical trunk of psychoanalysis has been taken up and continued by many followers, but many branches have also emerged, some of which being anti-psychoanalytic. Here we should mention the manifestations of the extremist political regimes and of the obscurantist – fixist concepts [17].
The sciences of psychoanalysis have contributed to the discovery and description of certain specific human experiences and qualities that add to the completion of the concept of uniqueness of each child, of each human being.
– Of S. Freud’s many continuators, we signal C.G. Jung ( 1875-1961 ) a psychiatrist and surrealist painter, who launched the verbal associative method, created the Transpersonal Psychology and the concepts of intro and extroversion [15].
– Alfred Adler (1870-1937) launches concepts devoid of mythology and sexuality, described the complex of inferiority and that of superiority, and created the “THEORY OF PERSONALITY” or the “Struggle for Perfection” and “the Types of Personality”. In 1928, Alfred Adler published “The Psychology of the Difficult Child” [3] where he presents the results of healing methods from the early twentieth century.
– Karen Horney (1885-1952), Freud’s student, is the founder of feminine psychology, that is presented in terms of intelligence, diligence and psycho- sexuality [10].
– Jacob L. Moreno (1889-1974) American psychologist of Romanian origin, student and disciple of Freud, laid the foundations of sociometry and socio- therapy in 1946, initiating the psychotherapeutic technique called PSYCHODRAMA by studying the psychological group relationships. Moreno invented the theatre of spontaneity through games created ad-hoc where the issues in everyday life are addressed [19].
In the field of child psychiatry, a decisive contribution was made by psychoanalysts such as Anna Freud – daughter of S. Freud – doubled by Melanie Klein and Margret Mahler who launched studies in child psychology and psychoanalysis, continued by Renee Spitz who, studying children from foster-care homes and orphanages, described the HOSPITALISM of those deprived of affection and communication in their early life, as well as the concept of “anaclitic depression”.Then, there was John Bowlby who defined the notions of ATTACHMENT and SEPARATION from parents [17]. The catalogue of child psychopathology studies has permanently been completed, it is vast, new branches have been established, for example, we mention J. Piaget with “Psychology and Epistemology”, Serge Lebovici with the 50 collaborators, who founded PsA of the infant (the 0-1 year-old child), Francoise Dolto, the psychoanalyst specialised in the medicine of education, etc.
– The American neuropsychiatrist Leo Kanner described during 1935-1936 what he labeled as “infantile autism” being considered the initiator of child psychiatry while the Austrian pediatrician Asperger announced other clinical forms of autism [17]. The year 1943 saw the launching of the theory of psychosomatic medicine that added to the ideas of psychoanalysis by trying to overturn Virchow’s and Pasteur’s concepts of somatic brain lesions, thus coming near Freud’s interpretation which inspired them [17].
– Erik Erikson was an exponent of psycho- sociology that addresses the position of the human psyche in society, under conditions of development
presents the results of healing methods from the early twentieth century.
– Karen Horney (1885-1952), Freud’s student, is the founder of feminine psychology, that is presented in terms of intelligence, diligence and psycho- sexuality [10].
– Jacob L. Moreno (1889-1974) American psychologist of Romanian origin, student and disciple of Freud, laid the foundations of sociometry and socio- therapy in 1946, initiating the psychotherapeutic technique called PSYCHODRAMA by studying the psychological group relationships. Moreno invented the theatre of spontaneity through games created ad-hoc where the issues in everyday life are addressed [19].
In the field of child psychiatry, a decisive contribution was made by psychoanalysts such as Anna Freud – daughter of S. Freud – doubled by Melanie Klein and Margret Mahler who launched studies in child psychology and psychoanalysis, continued by Renee Spitz who, studying children from foster-care homes and orphanages, described the HOSPITALISM of those deprived of affection and communication in their early life, as well as the concept of “anaclitic depression”.Then, there was John Bowlby who defined the notions of ATTACHMENT and SEPARATION from parents [17]. The catalogue of child psychopathology studies has permanently been completed, it is vast, new branches have been established, for example, we mention J. Piaget with “Psychology and Epistemology”, Serge Lebovici with the 50 collaborators, who founded PsA of the infant (the 0-1 year-old child), Francoise Dolto, the psychoanalyst specialised in the medicine of education, etc.
– The American neuropsychiatrist Leo Kanner described during 1935-1936 what he labeled as “infantile autism” being considered the initiator of child psychiatry while the Austrian pediatrician Asperger announced other clinical forms of autism [17]. The year 1943 saw the launching of the theory of psychosomatic medicine that added to the ideas of psychoanalysis by trying to overturn Virchow’s and Pasteur’s concepts of somatic brain lesions, thus coming near Freud’s interpretation which inspired them [17].
– Erik Erikson was an exponent of psycho- sociology that addresses the position of the human psyche in society, under conditions of development  Prometheus Complex, concerning the preservation of the sacred fire by producing and permanently guarding this divine discovery. In primitive times, fire was considered to be the son of the sun and was worshipped as the god of light, life and death.
 Empedocles Complex, named after the Greek philosopher, the creator of the fixist conception of the four principles of life: the earth, the air, the water, and the fire, which were worshipped as gods due to their status as supernatural forces, whose neglect would bring disasters and Apocalypse.
 Nero Complex, named after the pyromaniac Roman emperor who desired purification by fire. The concept is archaic and we still find it today in the ritual dances performed on smouldering embers.
 Novalis complex: deals with exposure to magic, to supernatural events and personalities.
 Hoffman’s complex, centres around the concept of the water that burns with flames (alcohol)
– During the completion of this article, with memories about psychoanalysis, i.e. in October- November 2018, I met the granddaughter of Sigmund Freud, Mrs. Jane McAdam Freud at the exhibition “NOW”. Jane was born in London, studied at Wimbledon, Ravenna, Oxford, where she was a student of Harrow C., her master, creating for museums in the UK, the Netherlands, Berlin, Brooklyn, Athens, etc. Her husband is an admirer and supporter of the artist. The works are presented at the Jecza Gallery in Timişoara.
This presentation completed our list dedicated to the numerous followers inspired by the works of S. Freud [17]. We want our text to be an introductory recollection at the beginning of the article by Prof. Virgil Ciomos, PhD, from Paris, whom we thank for his highclass material presented at the 18th RSCANP Congress in 2017.
CONCLUSIONS
Psychoanalysis was born during the fertile historical period of the Second Renaissance of Sciences and Arts at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The parents of this science addressed the intellectual media interested in the fertility and novelty of the ideas – enunciations that promised hope and possibility of further development. Like any novelty, Psychoanalysis has been taken over by some and rejected by others, while contradictory movements emerged inside and criticism outside the system.
We have concentrated the history and values of PsA, knowing that Freud’s systems and those of his followers are still practised, proving to be sources of ideas with the possibilities to use and resume many of the forgotten interpretations. The subjects remain open for beginners as well as for the specialist, and we expect to receive feedback from our colleagues.

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